Here are some of the most famous misleading statistics examples…and the most distorted. On August 2, during a discussion on affirmative action, Fox News used misleading statistics to suggest that white students enroll in college at lower rates than black and Hispanic students. The prosecution argued that chances of one death from SIDS = 1 in 8534, so the chances of two death from SIDS = 1 in 73 million. So, for structured data to be usable we need to manipulate it and translate it, in order to aid our business intelligence, business operations, or do trend analysis for example. While remaining skeptical, also keep in mind that, when statistics are correct, they can provide us with a wealth of information and knowledge. The prosecutor’s fallacy is the P (A|B) is equal to the P (B|A), which is not valid. Consider the hypothetical drug, Deprita, which was created to help treat depression. If you want statistical information on how many people are in the United States military, check out the U.S. Department of Defense. There are many misleading statistics examples, particularly misleading graphs in the news are quite common. Prosecutor’s fallacy, regardless of its name, can also be used by a defense lawyer to prove the innocence of their client. Examples of this type of logical fallacy are a bit confusing… because they’re meant to be. How do people manipulate data and statistics to deceive? When an argument is built around an emotional appeal, rather than logical appeal, it is called an ad hominem argument. credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. There are many ways to manipulate data, including but not limited to inappropriate use of descriptive statistics. This kind of data display can confuse and show the difference bigger than it is. imaginable degree, area of The research that linked the low carb diet with a shorter life span is observational, and it does not show the cause and effect relationship. Misleading statistics can deceive the receiver of the information if the receiver is not careful to notice the error or deception. How Data Manipulation Helps us Get Relevant Information. 1. highly religious people are not an authority on national security issues that undermine the value of the testimony. What is the source behind the statistic, and do they have anything to gain by giving a misleading figure? Statistics is the practice of collecting, organizing, and representing large amounts of numerical data. A fallacy in which anecdotal evidence (or a single vivid image, report, or experience) is offered as proof --in particular, when a small number of dramatic events are allowed to outweigh a significant amount … In this lesson, we'll discuss four different ways: inventing false statistical information, misinformation, neglecting the baseline, and making fallacious comparisons. 's' : ''}}. Misleading statistics, on the other hand, is a term that refers to the misusage of numerical data, either intentionally or due to error, that results in misleading information. In this day and age, big and small organizations have realized the importance of data in their everyday operations. One example of Simpson’s paradox appeared when UC Berkley was Sued for gender-bias in favor of male applicants. Who did the research, and was it funded or sponsored by a source that had something to gain from the results? Most of the time, it is presented without the background information necessary for its correct interpretation. succeed. 10) Misleading statistics: (type of hasty generalization) a. In addition, when an emotional attack on a person or his/her character is made, rather than refuting the points he/she made, it is also called ad hominem.. Having structured data is the key in all of this, as we use machines in order to make data inputs and to decipher those same inputs. According to the results, members of the support group were much less depressed at the end of the 6-week trial period. For instance, it could be a third variable actually responsible for both. Updated Apr 16, 2020. It’s fraught with misunderstanding, error, and fallacy. The prosecutor did not consider all of the other factors that could cause a child’s death. Both types of ad hominem arguments are based on emotions, not facts. An error occurred trying to load this video. 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